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Ruta Enoturística de la Comarca en El Puerto de Santa María

The Wine Trade

The industrial expansion of the wine industry in the 18th century

Although the trade and export of wine has been established for two thousand years, thanks to its status as a port city since its origins, it was from the 17th and 18th centuries onwards that an expansion took place that would end up shaping the city's appearance.

The appearance of Spanish and European colonies settled and consolidated in the five continents offers a panorama that makes the exponential growth of winegrowing activity inevitable.

During the 17th and 18th centuries, some of the properties on this estate were owned by powerful shippers to the Indies, who used them for olive groves and vineyards and traded their oils and wines in the Spanish colonies in America.

In the mid 18th century, business opportunities in the British market increased dramatically and the transformation of traditional viticulture into modern wine agribusiness took place, which consisted of wine ageing, free pricing, year-round trade, the construction of the new type of wine cellar-cathedral and the establishment of new companies that were vineyard owners, wine makers and exporters.

This great change in the Sherry wine industry underwent a second phase of development after the War of Independence and the emancipation of the Spanish colonies in America, with the leading role played by businessmen from the Indies and the Cantabria region. It was at this time that the construction of the large winemaking estate of Campo de Guía began in El Puerto.

This led to an increase in the area of vineyards and the transfer of ownership of some vineyards to winegrowers and winemakers. Old vineyard houses were repaired and new ones were built.

The phylloxera plague, which destroyed almost all the vineyards in the area between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, led to changes in cultivation, ownership, farming methods and the farmhouse.

Campo de Guía is the first industrial estate guidebook developed in Spain for wineries (from the 1920s onwards).

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