"La Albariza" is a type of soil that is very common in our region and which offers exceptional conditions for viticulture. It is a highly compacted marl composed mainly of calcium carbonate, clay and marine fossils. In addition to its mineral and nutrient richness, its secret lies in its ability to retain moisture from rainfall and soak up groundwater. On the other hand, the absence of steep slopes presents a profile with gentle slopes which facilitated the expansion of this crop. This type of soil, according to its particularities, is further subdivided into zones, known as Pagos (estates), which notably determine the properties of the grapes and the resulting wine, often acting as a differentiating element.
The proximity to the sea and the humidity of its breeze compensate to a large extent for the lack of rainfall. It also acts as a thermal regulator, avoiding large fluctuations in temperature, except on rare occasions, it does not usually fall below 7ºC and does not usually exceed 30ºC. The high level of luminosity (more than 3,200 hours of sunshine per year) also favours the natural process of vine growth.
Around a hundred indigenous grape varieties have been identified which maintained their presence in the region until the industrialisation of the vineyards in the 19th century. Due to the high alcoholic content that the Palomino (Listán) grape obtains and the implementation of the solera system that gave rise to the current Jerez-Xérèz-Sherry, this grape variety, together with Pedro Ximénez and Moscatel, gradually displaced the others until most of them practically disappeared. However, nowadays they are making a comeback together with the traditional wines produced with them, as is the case with the tintilla (red wine) of Rota.